The acronym FODMAP stands for Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols.
Fermentable means that carbohydrates and sugar alcohols are fermented by the bacteria which are in the large bowel**. This is the process where the gut bacteria break down undigested carbohydrate to produce the hydrogen, methane and CO2 gasses.
Oliogosaccharides is a literal translation as "few sugar". Oligo means few and saccharide means sugar. These are molecules that are made up of individual sugars which are joined together in a chain**.
Disaccharides are double sugar molecules**.
Monosaccharides are single-sugar molecules**.
Polyols are sugar alcohols**.
They are a collection of short chain carbohydrates and sugar alcohols found in foods naturally*. They are also used as food additives.
These short-chain carbohydrates are incompletely absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and can be easily fermented by gut bacteria.
FODMAP include fructose, fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), lactose and polyols (sorbitol and mannitol).
*taken from HERE
**taken from HERE