Wednesday, 31 July 2013

Home-Made Chicken Noodle Soup

A. Soup

Ingredients:

1. 1 whole free-range skinless chicken (cut into 4 equal parts)
2. 3 large old potatoes (skin peeled and cut into 4 equal parts)
3. 2 medium sized carrots (skin peeled and cut into 4 equal parts)
4. Filtered water
5. Sea-salt

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1. Put all ingredients above in a large pot (about 5L) . Make sure the chicken is submerged in the water.

2. Add about 1 teaspoon of sea-salt.

3. Boil for 2 hours.

B. The Noodles

Ingredients:

1. 200gm of organic brown rice noodles

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1. Soak the noodles in a bowl of filtered water (room temperature).

2. Once the noodles have softened, pour away the water, divide it into half and set it aside.

C. The Vegetable

Ingredients:

1. 200gm of organic choy sum leafy vegetable

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1. Wash the vegetable and slice into 3cm in length.

2. Once the soup has boiled, soak the vegetables in the soup for about 5 minutes.

3. Scoop up the vegetables.

D. The Dish

1. Take half of the noodles, a fistful of choy sum vegetables and place in a bowl.

2. Tear some of the chicken meat, scoop some potatoes and carrots into the bowl.

3. Lastly, fill the bowl up with the soup.

4. Garnish with some fried garlic/shallots.

Bon appétit!

Monday, 29 July 2013

AMINES Part 4 - Biogenic Amines in Food (Tyramine)

2. Tyramine

Tyramine is a naturally occurring monoamine compound and trace amine. It is derived from the amino acid called tyrosine.

Tyramine acts as a catecholamine (dopamine), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) releasing agent.

Because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) (this means that the circulation of blood from the brain's extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system is separated), tyramine is unable to cross over, resulting in non-psychoactive peripheral sympathomimetic effects.

For those who are on monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (to treat depression, Parkinson's or Alzheimer's), [click on LINK] ingestion of large amounts of tyramine can induce a hypertensive crisis.  This is when hypertension (high blood pressure) occurs with acute impairment of one or more organs. This can result in irreversible organ damage.

The Occurrence of Tyramine

Tyramine occurs in plants and animals. It is metabolized by the enzyme called monoamine oxidase. In food, it is often produced by fermentation and spoilage. Tyramine is produced by the decarboxylation of tyrosine during fermentation or decay.

Foods Which Are High in Tyramine

  1. Spoilt meats/fish
  2. Dried/Aged/Smoked/Fermented/Marinated fish and poultry
  3. Pork
  4. Broad bean pods
  5. Tap and unpasteurized beers
  6. Soy products/Tofu/Tempeh
  7. Shrimp paste
  8. Sauerkraut
  9. Sour cream
  10. Teriyaki sauce
  11. Miso soup
  12. Yeast extracts (Bovril, Marmite & Vegemite)/Brewer's yeast/Yeast vitamin supplements
  13. Old liver (not fresh)
  14. Banana peel/Over-riped bananas
  15. Ginseng
The 'Cheese Effect'

Somewhere in the 1960s, a British pharmacist noticed that his wife who was on an anti-depression (MAOI) would develope headaches whenever she consumed cheese. Thus, the 'cheese effect' name came about.

To read more about the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, click on LINK.
To read more about the link between tyramine-rich-food and antidepressants, click on LINK.



Sunday, 28 July 2013

AMINES Part 3 - Biogenic Amines in Food (Histamine)

1. Histamine

Biogenic amines, and in this case, histamine, naturally occurs in many types of foods. High levels of biogenic amines can lead to food intoxication. Moderate levels may cause food intolerance. Sensitive individuals may even become sick after ingesting food with histamine.

High histamine levels in food and beverages are usually a result of microbial contamination, which results in food spoilage. Fresh, clean and properly stored food have low levels of histamine.

a. Fish

A famous case of histamine poisoning would be the 'scombroid food poisoning'. Many people will not realise that they are having a case of histamine poisoning as it resembles an allergy reaction. People with scombroid food poisoning are not allergic to fish.

Histidine (an amino acid) exists in many types of fish. At temperatures above 16C with air contact, histidine is converted to the biogenic amines histamine via the enzyme called histidine decarboxylase which is produced by enteric bacterias. Histamine cannot be destroyed even at normal cooking temperatures. Thus, even properly cooked fish can be still be saturated with histamine.

Sensitive people can develope serious 'allergy-like' reactions.

Here is a list of some of the fishes which are associated with 'scombroid food poisoning' as they naturally have high levels of histidine.
  • Amberjack
  • Anchovies
  • Bluefish
  • Cape Yellowtail
  • Herring
  • Mackerel
  • Mahi-Mahi
  • Marlin
  • Pilchards
  • Sardines
  • Tuna
  • *Salmon (Though salmon isn't high in histidine, it has been connected to scombroid food poisoning)

b. Matured & Fermented Food

Cured meat, sauerkraut, cheese, yoghurt, kefir, red wine, smoked fish, bacon, sausages are a few of the fermented/matured food that have high levels of histamine. Again histidine is converted to histamine by the fermentation process which is aided by bacterias.

Meat and poultry are best eaten freshly cooked.

c. Wine (Alcohol)

Alcoholic drinks are high in histamine, particularly champagne and red wine. Red wine is not only high in histamines BUT it also is an inhibitor of the DOA enzyme (read my previous post) which is responsible for metabolising histamine. For sensitive people, drinking wine can be life-threatening! There is a term called the 'red-wine asthma' as some individuals after ingesting red wine, develope asthma-like breathing problems.

d. Fruits

Certain fruits contain high levels of histamine. They are strawberries, kiwi, papaya, bananas, grapefruits, mangoes and strawberries.

e. Vegetables

Tomatoes, spinach, eggplants, avocado, mushrooms and canned vegetables are some of the histamine-trouble-makers.

f. Others
  • All types of vinegars
  • Fermented soy products (soy sauce, tofu)
  • Tea/Coffee
  • Flavoured drinks
  • Apple cider
  • Basically all commercially prepared food
  • Confectionaries made with yeast

Click on LINK to read more on the 'histamine' restricted diet.

Foods with Potential Histamine-Releasing Effect

Interestingly enough, even if you do not consume food with histamine, there are certain foods which can cause your body to react and to be flooded with histamine.

  • Citrus fruits (This seems to be at the top of the list for histamine-releasing effect)
  • Papaya
  • Pineapple
  • Chocolate
  • Nuts
  • Additives
  • Licorice

Symptoms of Histamine Intolerance

* Primary Symptoms

  • Low blood pressure
  • Diarrhoea
  • Headache (which aggravates when moving - in contrast with tension-type headaches)
  • Heart rhythm problems (cardiac arrhythmia) 
  • Acid reflux
  • Rhinitis
  • Asthma/Chronic cough
  • Flushing
  • Pruritis
  • Tiredness
  • Dysmenorrhoea

*Secondary Symptoms 
(Some people may have delayed reactions. Or secondary symptoms after the primary symptoms have subsided)

  • Sleep disturbances (insomnia)
  • Anxiety/Panic attacks
Treatment

As there are no blood tests or even tests available in the medical world today for histamine intolerance, a low-histamine diet is recommended. Before you proceed to change your diet or go on an elimination diet, it is VITAL to consult a specialist whose mind is open to such sensitivities. NEVER go on such diets on your own. It could be fatal!

Click on HISTAMINE INTOLERANCE to understand more about this sensitivity.

Click on HISTAMINE & HISTAMINE INTOLERANCE.




Saturday, 27 July 2013

AMINES Part 2 - Biogenic Amines

In my previous post, I wrote about four different types of amines which we come across in our everyday life. They are the amino acids, biogenic amines, trymethylamine and aniline.

In this post, I will be writing about the biogenic amines and how it affects our everyday lives.

Biogenic Amines

A biogenic amine is biogenic substance with one or more amine groups. A biogenic substance is a substance which is produced by life processes. It could be secreted or is a part of plants and animals.

Examples of biogenic amines are:

a. Histamine

This is a substance which is derived from the amino acid histidine which acts as a neurotransmitter mediating arousal and attention. It is also a pro-inflammatory signal released from mast cells in response to allergic reactions or tissue damage.

Histamine is also an important stimulant of HCl (hydrochloric acid) secretion by the stomach through the histamine H2 receptors.

b. Serotonin

This is a central nervous system neurotransmitter derived from the amino acid tryptophan. Its role is to regulate mood, sleep, appetite and sexuality.

c. Catecholamine neurotransmitters

There are three of this neurotransmitters:
  • Norepinephrine - This is a neurotransmitter which is involved in sleep and wakefulness, attention, feeding behaviour and a stress hormone that regulates the sympathetic nervous system.
  • Epinephrine - This is an adrenal stress hormone.
  • Dopamine - This is a neurotransmitter that is involved in motivation, reward, addiction, behavioral reinforcement and coordination of body movements.
d. Trace Amines
  • 3-Iodothyronamine - This is a metabolite of the thyroid hormones.
  • Tryptarmine - This is a monoamine alkaloid found in the brains of mammals. It acts as a neuromodulator and neurotransmitter.
  • Tyramine - This is a substance found in many types of common food which causes migraines, headaches and elevated blood pressure.
  • Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
  • Phenethylamine
  • Octopamine
Two Types of Biogenic Amines

1. Endogenous Biogenic Amines

Endogenous is defined as substances which originate from within an organism, tissue or cell. Endogenous amines are produced in many different tissues within our bodies. Adrenaline is produced in our adrenal medulla and histamine is produced in our mast cells and liver.

2. Exogenous Biogenic Amines

Exogenous is defined as something which is outside the system. In this case, exogenous biogenic amines are amines which are not from our bodies. These are from the food that we eat which are then absorbed into our system via the intestines.

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Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes in our system which helps break down the amines in our bodies. It also prevents our bodies from excessive amine resorption. Without this family of enzymes, (or a lack of or too much) in our bodies, it can result in psychiatric and neurological disorders. The monoamine oxidase is further divided into two sub-groups: MAO-A and MAO-B.

a. MAO-A

  • This is found in the liver, gastrointestinal tract and placenta. This MAO-A is very vital in the catabolism of monoamines which are ingested in food. Catabolism means the molecules are broken down in smaller units to release energy which contributes to wakefulness and maintenance and growth of cells.
  • MAO-A mostly breaks down serotonin, melatonin, noradrenaline and adrenaline. 
  • Adrenaline/noradrenaline will be turned into 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid, which is a hormone and neuron transmitter.
  • Metanephrine will be turned into vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) which if is elevated in the urine, the patient would have tumors (adrenal gland tumors) that secrete catecholamines.
  • MAO-A inhibitors are used as antidepressants and anti-anxiety agents.
b. MAO-B


  • This is found mostly in blood platelets. 
  • Dopamine will be turned to dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. This seems to be the trigger for Parkinson's disease. 
  • MAO-B inhibitors (sometimes used together with MAO-A inhibitors) are used to treat Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Thus, unusually high or low levels of MAOs in the body has been connected to depression, schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder, and even migraines.

Click on LINK to read more about the importance and functions of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in our bodies.



AMINES Part 1 - An Introduction

Cross Sensitivity

A sensitivity to one substance that predisposes an individual to sensitivity to other substances that are related in chemical structure. Cross sensitivity with allergic reactions may develop between antibiotics of similar chemical structures.
Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. 2009, Elsevier

The Penicillin and Cephalosporin antibiotics are cousins. Some people who are allergic to Penicillin may react to antibiotics from the Cephalosporin group.

Thus, it is the same where natural compounds in food are concerned. I have already touched on salicylates and phenols in food.

To read more about salicylate, click on LINK.
To read more about phenols, click on LINK.

What Are Amines?

Amines are organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

Amines are derivatives of ammonia where one or more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group.

*Alkyl - In organic chemistry, an alkane is a saturated hydrocarbon. This means it only consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms, all bonds are single bonds and the carbon atoms are not joined in a cyclic structure but are in an open chain. An alkyl group is like an alkane consists mostly of single-bonded carbon and hydrogen atom.

*Aryl - An aryl is substituent derived from an aromatic ring (aromatic hydrocarbon).

There are some amines which we come across in our daily lives. They are amino acids, biogenic amines, trimethylamine and aniline.

1. Amino Acids

One of the main uses of amino acids in the industry is animal feed. The amino acids are added as an additive as the main bulk of these feeds are made from soybeans (which are naturally low/or may lack of some essential amino acids). Lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan are the most important amino acids in the production of these feeds.

You may question of the importance of adding these to the feeds. There are amino acids which are essential to humankind. They are 9 of them. They are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. They are labelled as 'essential' because our bodies do not produce them. Thus, we need to have an intake of these 'essential' amino acids.

There are also non-essential amino acids. They are alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serene, tyrosine, asparagine and selenocysteine. They are only essential in certain cases. An example would be the need for cysteine, tyrosine and arginine which are required by infants and growing children. We fully grown adults do not need them.

The food industry is another major amino acid user. The glutamic acid and aspartame are two of the most widely used amino acid in the food industry. Glutamic acid is used as a flavour enhancer. Aspartame is a low-calorie artificial sweetener.

The third industry which uses amino acids is the agriculture industry. The chelating of amino acids are used in fertilizers to provide minerals to plants which have mineral deficiencies. An example would be iron chlorosis. Thus, by providing them the necessary minerals, mineral deficiencies would be reduced and the overall health of the crops would be boosted.

2. Biogenic Amines

A biogenic amine is biogenic substance with one or more amine groups. A biogenic substance is a substance which is produced by life processes. It could be secreted or is a part of plants and animals.

Examples of biogenic amines are:

a. Histamine

This is a substance which is derived from the amino acid histidine which acts as a neurotransmitter mediating arousal and attention. It is also a pro-inflammatory signal released from mast cells in response to allergic reactions or tissue damage.

Histamine is also an important stimulant of HCl (hydrochloric acid) secretion by the stomach through the histamine H2 receptors.

b. Serotonin

This is a central nervous system neurotransmitter derived from the amino acid tryptophan. Its role is to regulate mood, sleep, appetite and sexuality.

c. Catecholamine neurotransmitters

There are three of this neurotransmitters:

  • Norepinephrine - This is a neurotransmitter which is involved in sleep and wakefulness, attention, feeding behaviour and a stress hormone that regulates the sympathetic nervous system.
  • Epinephrine - This is an adrenal stress hormone.
  • Dopamine - This is a neurotransmitter that is involved in motivation, reward, addiction, behavioral reinforcement and coordination of body movements.
d. Trace Amines

  • 3-Iodothyronamine - This is a metabolite of the thyroid hormones.
  • Tryptarmine - This is a monoamine alkaloid found in the brains of mammals. It acts as a neuromodulator and neurotransmitter.
  • Tyramine - This is a substance found in many types of common food which causes migraines, headaches and elevated blood pressure.
  • Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
  • Phenethylamine
  • Octopamine

3. Trimethylamine

Trimethylamine is an organic compound which is colorless, hydroscopic and a flammable tertiary amine. It has a strong 'fishy' odour in low concentrations. At higher concentrations, it has an amonia-like odour.

Trimethylamine is a product of decomposition of plants and animals. It is associated with roting fish, some infections, bad breath and is also capable of causing the vaginal odour due to bacterial vaginosis.

Trimethylaminuria is a genetic disorder where the body is unable to metabolize trimethylamine from food sources. People with this genetic disorder develope a characteristic fish odour in their sweat, urine and breath after consuming choline-rich foods.

4. Aniline

This is an organic compound with a phenyl group attached to an amino group. This means it is an aromatic amine. It has the odour of rotten fish! It also ignites easily. Its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane.

Aniline is used in rubber processing chemicals, herbicides, dyes and pigments.

Aniline was used as an analgesic drug in the late 19th century. Paracetamol is a drug prepared from aniline.

It is also used in the dye industry which is known as azo dyes.



Thursday, 18 July 2013

I Lost the Battle!

It's been four months since we had fallen sick. The last time we fell sick was the Influenza B in March.

Last Thursday Joel had a sore throat which progressed to mild fever and then a full-blown flu. My brother was down with it on the same day too.

I hung on until yesterday. I had a sore throat for a week. The fever finally came crashing yesterday and the pain in my throat swelled up to my ears. Currently I'm burning at 101F.

This round my mom got it too....

I had a swab test done and was negative for both Influenza A and B. It's just a normal flu virus.

Many people in Joel's school were sick. Even his principal had lost his voice. And many had sore throats. I think it could have been all the virus and bacteria that was trapped in the haze.

Well, it's soup-time-everyday again. Hallelujah for chicken soup!

Looks like my alter ego 'Miss Clean Freak' wasn't freakish enough! Haha!

Wednesday, 17 July 2013

Evelyn's Home-Made 'Mee Mamak Goreng'

Back in the days when I could eat all sorts of food from all sorts of places, my family and I would many times eat at this famous Mamak shop, called Dawood (operated and owned by Indian-Muslims). Malaysia being a country with diverse race and religion, has all sorts of eateries. And the Mamak eateries are one of them.

To read more about the Mamak eateries culture in Malaysia, clink on LINK.

We used to order the briyani rice with mutton and beef curry which was rich in spices! (I am salivating now, reminiscing all of the wonderful food!) We also had the mee mamak goreng which is fried yellow noodles with potatoes, bean curd, seafood, a variety of sauces and of course spices!

Gone are the days when I can gorge on spices. I can't even smell them now. Thus, I've made many amendments to the 'mee mamak goreng' so that I am still able to satisfy the cravings which come and torment my mind (and tummy)!

Ingredients:

1. 500gm of spaghetti (Boiled till at a 'just soften state'. If it is too soft, the fried noodles dish will result in a horrible mess. It will be like eating slush.)
2. 3 large, old potatoes (skinned and cut into cubes)
3. 200gm of minced chicken (seasoned with sea-salt)
4. 200gm of prawns (seasoned with sea-salt and soft brown sugar)
5. A bunch of choy sum leafy vegetable (washed and cut into strips of about 3cm long)
6. 4 shallots (cut into thin strips)
7. 1/2 a clove of garlic (cut into think strips)
8. Sea-salt
9. Soft brown sugar
10. Sunflower oil

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1. Heat a wok. Once it is hot, pour about 4 tablespoons of sunflower oil.

2. Add the sliced shallots and garlic. Stir fry until fragrant and slightly browned.

3. Add the potatoes and cover with lid and turn the heat to medium low. Once the potatoes have softened, add the minced chicken.

4. Once the minced chicken is cooked, break the minced chicken into small pieces.

5. Add the prawns and vegetables. Stir fry until prawns are cooked and the vegetable is softened. Stir the whole dish together.

6. Add the spaghetti and mix the whole dish thoroughly. Stir fry for about 5 minutes.

7. Once it is done, scoop up onto serving plate.

8. Serve warm.

Bon appétit!




Sunday, 14 July 2013

The Salmon Wild Rice Dish

Ingredients:

1. 1 large piece of salmon (baked, deboned and shredded to fine pieces)
* Click on LINK for recipe on how to bake the salmon.
2. 1 cup of sushi rice
3. 2 cups of wild rice
4. Poppy Seeds
* Alternatively, you can use sesame seeds if you are able to tolerate.
5. Sea-salt

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1. Combine the sushi rice and wild rice in a large pot. Wash thoroughly.

2. Pour about 2 cups of water and boil for about 15 minutes on high heat and 15 minutes on medium heat. (Or you could just use a rice cooker. It's much easier and hassle free.)

3. Bake the fish which is seasoned with sea-salt.

4. Debone the fish and shred it into fine pieces.

5. Once the rice is done, add it to the shredded fish.

6. Add 1/2 teaspoon of sea-salt and sprinkle some poppy (or sesame) seeds to the dish and mix thoroughly.

7. Serve warm.

Bon appétit!


Sunday, 7 July 2013

Chickpeas Pita

Ingredients:

1. 500gm of organic high protein flour
2. 270gm of chickpeas (grounded into fine flour) (I used a food processor)
* Not everything will be grounded into fine flour. I am fine with that as it will give the pitas a crunchy texture.
3. 1 teaspoon of sea-salt
4. 3 stalks of spring onions (scallions) (finely chopped)
5. 1 big onion (chopped finely)
6. Dry yeast (1 tablespoon)
7. 1 teaspoon of brown sugar
8. 1 cup of warm water

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1. In a small bowl, mix the warm water, sugar and dry yeast. Stir and leave aside for about 15 minutes until the mixture becomes foamy.

2. In a large mixing bowl, mix the flour, grounded chickpeas, sea-salt, spring onions, big onion and the yeast concoction. Knead into a smooth dough. (*Add more water if not enough. And if too mushy, add more flour.)

3. Place aside and cover the bowl with a cling film for about 1 hour until it doubles in size.

4. Knock the dough back down and split the dough into golf-ball sizes.

5. Flatten the dough into round, flat pieces.

6. Preheat oven at 240C.

7. Place the flattened pieces of dough onto a baking tray lined with baking paper.

8. Bake for about 15 minutes.

9. Serve when it is warm.

Bon appétit!

Grounded chickpeas flour.
Before baking.
Yummy-licious pita!


Friday, 5 July 2013

The 'Flour' Mites!

Did you know that your wheat flour is a perfect breeding ground for DUST MITES??!!!

Yes, DUST MITES!

Not only do these dust mites breed in flour, they also breed in milk powder, sugar, corn meal, semolina, macaroni and cereal products, dried fruit and the stuffing go wheat-pain-relieveing-pads that are heated in the microwave.

Dust mites love warm, damp and dark places. And kitchen cupboards are perfect for them as they are damp, dark and warm.

Individuals with dust mite allergy can experience severe allergic reaction when they ingest these mites. It is called the 'oral mite anaphylaxis' or the 'pancake syndrome'. This type of anaphylaxis is frequently triggered by congesting pancakes; thus the name, 'pancake syndrome'. Severe asthma attacks can be triggered as well.

These pantry mites are less than 1mm in size and translucent to light buff to brown in colour.

Some signs of dust mites infestation in flour:

1. Severe infestations will result in a brownish tinge throughout the flour. (You can even see brown, stringy, ropes present.)
2. A 'minty ordour' will be present if the mites are crushed!
3. Flour will become sticky.
4. The flour will also acquire sickly sweet smell and will develope an unpalatable taste.

Even when the flour is cooked at high temperature, the mites can still trigger an allergic reaction.

In order to keep your wheat flour 'mites-free', keep them in the refrigerator. All the more if the packet of flour is opened! There are some people who store unused flour in the freezer. That will certainly keep the flour 'mites-free'!

*Some think that by storing the remaining flour in air-tight plastic bags, they are safe. The mites are able to puncture and make pin point holes in them!!!!! So store them in airtight containers.

Do check your flour before using!

PS: I store all my flour in the fridge after experiencing a 'flour-mite' infestation!


Wednesday, 3 July 2013

Multigrain Bread

Ingredients:

1. 15ml of active dried yeast
2. 1/4 cup of lukewarm water
3. 3/4 cup of organic rolled oats
4. 2 cups of fresh soya milk
5. 1 teaspoon of sea-salt
6. 1/4 cup of sunflower oil
7. 1/4 cup of soft brown sugar
8. 2 eggs (lightly beaten)
9. 25gm of wheatgerm
10. 4 cups of strong wholemeal flour
11. 4 1/2 cups of strong white bread flour
12. 1/2 cup of flaxseeds
13. 1/2 cup of sunflower seeds

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1. Combine the yeast, water and a pinch of sugar in a small bowl. Stir and mix all three and leave for about 15 minutes for the yeast to become frothy.

2. Place the oats in a large bowl. Boil the soya milk and then pour it over the rolled oats. Stir in the salt, oil, and sugar. Leave it aside until it is lukewarm.

3. Stir in and mix the yeast mixture, eggs, wheatgerm, wholemeal flour, white flour and seeds into the the lukewarm mixture.

4. Knead the dough until smooth and elastic.

5. Return the dough to a clean bowl, cover with cling film and leave it in a warm place until double in volume for about 2 1/2 hours.

6. Punch down the risen dough and knead briefly for about 10 minutes.

7. Divide the dough into 3 segments. Place them into 3 loaf tins (lined with baking paper). Leave them for about an hour to rise and double in size again.

8. Preheat oven at 190C.

9. Bake for about 45 to 50 minutes.

10. Allow to cool once done.

11. You can keep the extra loaves of bread in the freezer.

Bon appétit!




Epi-Pens: It's The Same in Singapore!

Apparently the same situation where Epi-Pens are concerned in Malaysia is happening in Singapore too!

Click on link to read more!